Canada is a vast country situated above the United States and bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, North Pacific Ocean, and Arctic Ocean. Canada has 8,893 km in land boundaries, and is the second largest country by total area in the world, second only to Russia. There are ten provinces and three territories, with the majority of the population clustered along the American border. The two largest cities are Toronto and Vancouver. The country was originally founded as a compact between Aboriginal peoples, the French-speaking minority, and the English-speaking majority. The French began colonizing the country in late 15th century, followed closely by the British, who eventually gained political control over the colony. In 1867, the country gained partial independence from the British crown, and full sovereignty in 1982. Canada still maintains strong ties with the UK as part of the commonwealth. Canada’s largest trading partner and ally is the United States. Today, its government is a parliamentary democracy.