The Republic of Peru, also known as Peru, is a south american country on the west side of the continent. It was conquered by the Spanish in 16th century, and eventually declared independence in 1821. Since independence, the country has undergone periods of political stability and instability, and several changes in government. Currently, it is a representative democratic republic, and is considered a developing nation. Despite its low-key status in the current international system, Peru is historically very important. Peru was once home to some of the most ancient civilizations in the world, including the Incan empire. Peru is also an ecological hotspot, and known for its diverse geography. There are plains on the coast, the Andes mountains in the north, and the Amazon river and rainforest in the east.