The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) was established in 1945 along with the founding of the United Nations itself at the end of World War II. As one of the six principal organs of the UN, the Security Council is unique among the committees offered at NHSMUN in its membership, scope, and power. The UNSC’s history and structure have developed in a unique way because the UNSC has a unique, precautionary, and reactionary role in the UN: it is meant to respond to international crises and maintain international peace. In response to such crises, the Council can mandate decisive actions such as peace talks, mediations, negotiations, and meetings. Additionally, according to Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Council can approve the use of force if there is no other way to maintain international peace. The Security Council can also deploy UN peacekeeping operations and impose sanctions on states. Only the UNSC has this power.
Topic A: The Situation in South Sudan
Since its independence in 2011, South Sudan has been the center of an ongoing humanitarian crisis brought upon by internal power struggles among political parties and various militant groups which has resulted in 400,000 deaths and nearly 4,000,000 displaces peoples. The violence and ensuing instability caused by the Sudanese Civil War in 2013 had led to widespread human rights violations by all parties to the conflict in the form of extrajudicial killings, arbitrary detentions, torture, sexual violence and other abuses which qualify as war crimes and crimes against humanity. The civil war began with political infighting between the two rival leaders, Salva Kiir and Riek Machar, manifesting as an armed struggle in the South Sudanese capital of Juba. The conflict would be further intertwined in ethnic tensions and rampant accusations over attacks, as Kiir belonged to the Dinka group while Machar belonged the Nuer group. Many opportunities to broker peace, reconcile the political situation, and restructure the government would arise but would ultimately fall through until February 20, 2020, when both Kiir and Machar would end the seven year civil war and agree to form a unified government. The Security Council must continue to promote peace in post-war South Sudan to ensure any ongoing violence is ended and the government remains in good political health in order to ensure sound order and the upholding of all human rights.
Topic B: The Situation in Haiti
Haiti has long faced a divisive and unstable political situation characterized by natural disasters, epidemics, and a lack of infrastructure for civilians. Despite continuous involvement in Haiti from the international community over the last two decades to end violence and establish political stability, corruption and a lack of political infrastructure to properly affect vital economic change and infrastructural development still remain a problem. Political protests in Haiti in 2019 brought attention to corruption in the current government headed by Jovenel Moise and also led to political and gang violence in parts of Haiti. Political dissent and stagnancy have further exacerbated internal reactions to multiple crises spanning from the 2010 earthquake, to a cholera epidemic, and the annular hurricane season. These circumstances have ultimately led to instability for civilian populations and a growing economic and humanitarian crisis. Historically, the Security Council has provided aid to Haiti since the 1990s in the form of peacekeeping missions and a special political mission. Therefore, it is pertinent that the Security Council continue to work with Haiti in order to establish a stable government and conditions which promote the wellbeing of all of its civilians.